Programming principles tell us that naming in code is important. This article aims to be a complete learner’s guide for naming in code. It also aims to be a reference about naming that you can refer to in the future if you need to.

For certain things, such as naming methods, there are different naming conventions. We’ll mention a few so that you’re aware of how they work and the options you can choose from.

Overall, we’ll examine:

  1. the motivation for wanting good names
  2. general naming tips for all code
  3. established naming conventions for specific things such as variables…


In this post we’ll look at how to make a simple carousel with HTML, CSS and JavaScript. We will use good code practices, keep accessibility in mind and also consider how we can test the carousel.

The carousel will be a “moving carousel”. Slides will move in from left to right, or right to left, with a transition. It won’t be an in-place carousel where a slide fades out while another one fades-in.

If you prefer a video version, here it is. It goes into much more detail than this post.

Basic functionality

We’ll start with the basic functionality. …


This is an intermediate / advanced functional programming challenge I had to solve in an interview. I found it very interesting and it had me thinking for a while.

If you’re interested in a brain teaser, have a go. You can also complete it using classes and methods if you prefer, but we’ll use functions in this article.

(If you don’t know a lot about functional programming and want to look at that first, then check out functional programming — the ultimate beginner’s guide.)

The challenge

There were two parts to the challenge. Part 1 and part 2. …


Code units at the edges of your application should be small, independent and only do one thing.

This is a direct application of many established programming principles. This includes KISS, separation of concerns, single responsibility principle and many more.

So, to have “good code”, apply this principle where possible.

This article will show you how to apply it. It will also examine why this principle is important and how it makes your code better.

To showcase, we’ll use units at the edge of an application. They’re easier to use to illustrate this point. …


For everything you need to know about accessibility, check out Web accessibility — Everything you need to know, on Programming Duck.

Disclaimer: I’m not a lawyer. This article only represents my personal opinion and current understanding. It is not legal advice. Please consult a lawyer for information on the legal aspects of accessibility.

This article examines why you need to know about accessibility. Other than being something which many jobs probably require you to know, there are some very strong reasons for knowing about it.

Accessibility is a legal requirement

Accessibility seems to be a legal requirement in many countries / continents all over…


Photo by Sigmund on Unsplash

For everything you need to know about accessibility, check out Web accessibility — Everything you need to know, on Programming Duck.

Disclaimer: I’m not a lawyer. This article only represents my personal opinion and current understanding. It is not legal advice. Please consult a lawyer for information on the legal aspects of accessibility.

Ensuring that your website is accessible shouldn’t be difficult. A little bit of effort can take you a long way in your day-to-day work.

To start with, if you’re completely new to accessibility, learning some of the basics will be very helpful. …


For everything you need to know about accessibility, check out Web accessibility — Everything you need to know, on Programming Duck.

Disclaimer: I’m not a lawyer. This article only represents my personal opinion and current understanding. It is not legal advice. Please consult a lawyer for information on the legal aspects of accessibility.

So you’ve decided to learn web accessibility? This article will show you how to learn it from complete beginner to advanced.

Prerequisites — Semantic HTML

The most important thing you can do for web accessibility is to use semantic HTML. HTML elements already have built-in accessibility semantics. …


This article is the beginner’s introductory guide to programming principles.

First we’re going to examine what good code is. The qualities of good code. That’s because those qualities come before programming principles. Programming principles are just guidelines to help us apply those qualities to code.

Afterwards, we’ll examine the most important programming principles, one-by-one, at an introductory level.

Hopefully, this article will feel less like “have small functions” and more like “these are the qualities you want in code, for reasons 1, 2 and 3. …


This post (Principles of testing for developers) was originally published on Sargalias.

There are different aspects we can test about software, such as performance, visual regression, internationalisation, and much more. This article focuses on the kind of testing developers do during development. This means end-to-end tests, integration tests, and unit tests.

Testing during development is not very difficult. At least the concepts behind testing are not. It’s just based on a few common-sense principles, and we’re literally talking about only 4 or 5 principles or so.

But it seems to be a topic that many developers struggle with.

I think…


The original and latest version of this post (how to learn web application security) can be found at Programming Duck.

Learning web application security doesn’t have to be painful. In fact, I think it’s the same as any other topic, and it doesn’t even take that long. There are a few resources that are easy to follow and learn from, especially if you’re only looking to learn web security basics.

Why should developers learn about web application security?

Every application needs to be secure, because every application can and will be attacked in absolutely any way imaginable, particularly as it becomes more popular. …

Spyros Argalias

Web developer — https://sargalias.com. Specialising in front end development. I love programming and strive to be the best software developer I can be.

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